Classé dans: — admin @ 1:30 pm

Je voudrais bien enregistrer mes découvertes en philosophie. J’espère que ça vous intéresse autant que mon livre «Sobre a Essência da Informática: Técnica e informática a partir do pensamento de M. Heidegger» (en portugais).

Murilo Cardoso de Castro
Docteur ès Philosophie
Université Fédérale de Rio de Janeiro

Tout passe
et tout demeure
Mais notre affaire est de passer
De passer en traçant
Des chemins
Des chemins sur la mer
Voyageur, le chemin
C’est les traces
de tes pas
C’est tout ; voyageur,
il n’y a pas de chemin,
Le chemin se fait en marchant
Le chemin se fait en marchant
Et quand tu regardes en arrière
Tu vois le sentier
Que jamais
Tu ne dois à nouveau fouler
Voyageur! Il n’y a pas de chemins
Rien que des sillages sur la mer

Antonio Machado (1875-1939)



Classé dans: — admin @ 6:01 pm


Determination to reach a state where the functioning of my psyche in my usual waking state would flow in accordance with the previous instructions of my active consciousness. (Life is real…) p. 20

Remembering myself so as to be able to manifest myself, not according to my nature but according to the previous instructions of my collected consciousness. (Life is real…) p. 20.

I could not attain the state of remembering myself even sufficiendy to hinder the associations flowing in me automatically. (Life is real…) p. 21.


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:59 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

In one of the following conversations G. again returned to the subject of classification according to cosmic traits.

“There is still another system of classification,"‘ he said, “which you also ought to understand. This is a classification in an altogether different ratio of octaves. The first classification by ‘food,’ ‘air,’ and medium definitely refers to ‘living beings’ as we know them, including plants, that is to say, to individuals. The other classification of which I shall now speak leads us far beyond the limits of what we call ‘living beings’ both upwards, higher than living beings, as well as downwards, lower than living beings, and it deals not with individuals but with classes in a very wide sense. Above all this classification shows that there are no jumps whatever in nature. In nature everything is connected and everything is alive. The diagram of this classification is called the ‘Diagram of Everything Living.’

Centres III (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:58 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

An ordinary man is ruled now by the mind, now by the feeling, now by the body. Very often he obeys orders coming from the automatic apparatus; a thousand times more often he is ordered about by the sex center. [VRW p. 246]

Centres II (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:57 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

When I spoke of machines I called normal work a manifestation of a man — which implies all three centers taken together. This is his manifestation. But owing to abnormal life some people have other levers, which become formed outside centers and which provoke movement independently of the soul. It can be in the flesh, the muscles, anywhere.

Centres I (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:56 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

Question: Can one alter one’s emotions by acts of judgment?

Answer: One center of our machine cannot change another center. For example: in London I am irritable, the weather and the climate dispirit me and make me bad-tempered, whereas in India I am good-tempered. Therefore my judgment tells me to go to India and I shall drive out the emotion of irritability. But then, in London, I find I can work; in the tropics not as well. And so, there I should be irritable for another reason. You see, emotions exist independently of the judgment and you cannot alter one by means of the other. [VRW p.79]

Centres (also «Brains» in BTG)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:55 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

“In all my three ‘being-centers’ – namely, in the three centers localized in the presence of every three-centered being, and which exist under the name of ‘Thinking,’ ‘Feeling,’ and ‘Moving’ centers – there began to be perceived separately and independently in each of them in a very strange and unusual way very definite impressions that there was taking place in the separate parts of my whole planetary body an independent process of the sacred ‘Rascooarno,’ and that the cosmic crystallizations which composed the presences of these parts were flowing ‘in vain.’ [BTG XVIII]

Being (ISM)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:53 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

“People understand what ‘knowledge’ means. And they understand the possibility of different levels of knowledge. They understand that knowledge may be lesser or greater, that is to say, of one quality or of another quality. But they do not understand this in relation to ‘being.’ ‘Being,’ for them, means simply ‘existence’ to which is opposed just ‘non-existence.’ They do not understand that being or existence may be of very different levels and categories. Take for instance the being of a mineral and of a plant. It is a different being. The being of a plant and of an animal is again a different being. The being of an animal and of a man is a different being. But the being of two people can differ from one another more than the being of a mineral and of an animal. This is exactly what people do not understand. And they do not understand that knowledge depends on being. Not only do they not understand this latter but they definitely do not wish to understand it. And especially in Western culture it is considered that a man may possess great knowledge, for example he may be an able scientist, make discoveries, advance science, and at the same time he may be, and has the right to be, a petty, egoistic, caviling, mean, envious, vain, naive, and absent minded man. It seems to be considered here that a professor must always forget his umbrella everywhere.

Being (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:52 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

But if a man knows how to be sincere with himself-not sincere as the word is usually understood, but mercilessly sincere — then, to the question “What are you?” he will not expect a comforting reply. So now, without waiting for you to come nearer to experiencing for yourselves what I am speaking about, I suggest that, in order to understand better what I mean, each of you should now ask himself the question “What am I?” I am certain that 95 percent of you will be puzzled by this question and will answer with another one: “What do you mean?”

Being (BTG)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:51 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

Becoming Aware of Genuine Being-Duty [BTG VII]

“Now it must be further noticed that you, as a three-brained being who arose on the planet Karatas, are at the present time still only a boy of twelve years, and in respect of Being and of Reason, you are exactly like a boy of twelve on the planet Earth who has not yet been formed and who is not yet cognizant of himself – through which being-age all the three-brained beings arising there also live during the process of their growing up to the Being of a responsible being. [BTG XVI]

Awakening (BTG)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:49 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

“In accordance with this principle (Itoklanoz), the forming in the presence of such beings of energy necessary for what is called their ‘waking state’ depends on the quality of the associations which proceed in their common presence during their ‘complete passivity’ or as those favorites of yours say, ‘during sleep’; and vice versa, that energy necessary for the ‘productiveness’ of this said ’sleep,’ is formed in its turn also from the associative process proceeding in them during this waking state, which is dependent on the quality or intensity of their activity.


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:48 pm

“In accordance with this principle (Itoklanoz), the forming in the presence of such beings of energy necessary for what is called their ‘waking state’ depends on the quality of the associations which proceed in their common presence during their ‘complete passivity’ or as those favorites of yours say, ‘during sleep’; and vice versa, that energy necessary for the ‘productiveness’ of this said ’sleep,’ is formed in its turn also from the associative process proceeding in them during this waking state, which is dependent on the quality or intensity of their activity.

Automatism (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:47 pm

In my opinion the trouble with you, in the present instance, is perhaps chiefly due to the fact that while still in childhood, there was implanted in you and has now become ideally well harmonized with your general psyche, an excellently working automatism for perceiving all kinds of new impressions, thanks to which “blessing” you have now, during your responsible life, no need of making any individual effort whatsoever. [BTG I]

Attention (VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:46 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

Question: How can we gain attention?

Answer: There is no attention in people. You must aim to acquire this. Self-observation is only possible after acquiring attention. Start on small things.

Question: What small things can we start on? What should we do?

Answer: Your nervous and restless movements make everyone know, consciously or unconsciously, that you have no authority and are a booby. With these restless movements you cannot be anything. The first thing for you to do is to stop these movements. Make this your aim, your God. Even get your family to help you. Only after this, you can perhaps gain attention. This is an example of doing.

Another example-an aspiring pianist can never learn except little by little. If you wish to play melodies without first practicing, you can never play real melodies. The melodies you will play will be cacophonous and will make people suffer and hate you. It is the same with psychological ideas: to gain anything, long practice is necessary.

Try to accomplish very small things first. If at first you aim at big things you will never be anything. And your manifestations will act like cacophonous melodies and cause people to hate you. [VRW p. 90-91]

Attention (in LIR)

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For a real influencing of the common presence of those who do all these special exercises, and for an easier assimilation of what is required and necessary, you must know first of all that the obtained totality of results of various functions proceeding in the psychic life of people, which is called “attention,” is itself split automatically by the accidental surrounding conditions, as well as by an intentional force of will, into several definite parts, and each of these parts may be, of course also by itself as well as intentionally, concentrated on something special with a definite intensity. For the given case, it is indispensable first to learn to divide one’s entire attention in three approximately equal parts, and to concentrate each separate part simultaneously for a definite time on three diverse inner or outer “objects.” For the possibility of a practical achieving of this aim, in the same mentioned detailed program were indicated a series of exercises under the name of “soil preparing.” [LIR p. 112-113]

Atmosphere (in LIR)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:44 pm

At the beginning it is necessary to pronounce the words “I am” very often and to try always not to forget to have the said reverberation in one’s solar plexus. Without this even if only imagined experiencing of the reverberation, the pronouncing aloud or to oneself of the words “I am” will have no significance at all. The result of the pronouncing of them without this reverberation will be the same as that which is obtained from the automatic associative mentation of man, namely, an increase of that in the atmosphere of our planet from our perception of which, and from its blending with our second food, there arises in us an irresistible urge to destroy the various tempos of our ordinary life somehow established through centuries. [LIR p.135]

Self-observation (in VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:43 pm

First of all everyone should understand his own mechanicalness. This understanding can come only as the result of a rightly formulated self-observation. As to self-observation — it is not so simple a thing as it may seem at first sight. Therefore the teaching puts as the foundation stone the study of the principles of right self-observation. But before passing to the study of these principles a man must make the decision that he will be absolutely sincere with himself, will not close his eyes to anything, will not turn aside from any results, wherever they may lead him, will not fear any deductions, will not limit himself to any previously erected walls. For a man unaccustomed to thinking in this direction, very much courage is required to accept sincerely the results and conclusions arrived at. They upset man’s whole line of thinking and deprive him of his most pleasant and dearest illusions. He sees, first of all, his total impotence and helplessness in the face of literally everything that surrounds him. Everything possesses him, everything rules him. He does not possess, does not rule anything. Things attract or repel him. All his life is nothing but a blind following of those attractions and repulsions. Further, if he is not afraid of the conclusions, he sees how what he calls his character, tastes and habits are formed: in a word, how his personality and individuality are built up. But man’s self-observation, however seriously and sincerely it may be carried out, by itself cannot draw for him an absolutely true picture of his internal mechanism. [VRW p. 72]

Atmosphere (in VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:42 pm

Question: What is magnetism?

Answer: Man has two substances in him, the substance of active elements of the physical body, and the substance made up of the active elements of astral matter. These two form a third substance by mixing. This mixed substance gathers in certain parts of a man and also forms an atmosphere around him, like the atmosphere surrounding a planet. Planetary atmospheres are continually gaining or losing substances because of other planets. Man is surrounded by other men, just as planets are surrounded by other planets. Within certain limits, when two atmospheres meet, and if the atmospheres are “sympathetic,” a connection is made between them and lawful results occur. Something flows. The amount of atmosphere remains the same, but the quality changes. Man can control his atmosphere. It is like electricity, having positive and negative parts. One part can be increased and made to flow like a current. Everything has positive and negative electricity. In man, wishes and non-wishes may be positive and negative. Astral material always opposes physical material. [VRW p. 93]

Atmosphere (in BTG)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:41 pm


“And since the world without planets and hence without atmospheres cannot exist, then it follows that as long as the world exists and, in consequence, atmospheres, the cylinder-barrels invented by the great Archangel Hariton will always work. [BTG VI]

Astrology (in ISM)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:40 pm


“There was a question about war. How to stop wars? Wars cannot be stopped. War is the result of the slavery in which men live. Strictly speaking men are not to blame for war. War is due to cosmic forces, to planetary influences. But in men there is no resistance whatever against these influences, and there cannot be any, because men are slaves. If they were men and were capable of ‘doing,’ they would be able to resist these influences and refrain from killing one another.” (more…)

Astrology (in VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:38 pm

If we now look at the relation of the earth to the universe, we shall see that on the one hand the earth’s satellite is included in the sphere of its influence, while on the other the earth enters as a component part into the planetary world of our solar system. The earth is one of the small planets turning round the sun. The mass of the earth forms an almost negligible fraction compared with the whole mass of planets of the solar system, and the planets exert a very great influence on the life of the earth and on all existing and living organisms-a far greater influence than our science imagines. The life of individual men, of collective groups, of humanity, depends upon planetary influences in very many things. The planets also live, as we live upon the earth. But the planetary world in its turn enters into the solar system, and enters as a very unimportant part because the mass of all the planets put together is many times less than the mass of the sun. [VRW p.66] (more…)

Astrology (in BTG)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:37 pm

“Among their fundamental definite obligations was that they also, like our Zerlikners, had to advise all the conjugal pairs in their what was then called ‘flock,’ according to the types of those pairs, about the time and form of the process of the sacred ‘Elmooarno’ for the purpose of a desirable and corresponding conception of their results, and when such results were actualized, or, as they themselves say, ‘newly born,’ they had to draw up their ‘Oblekioonerish’ which is the same as what your favorites call ‘horoscope’; and later either they themselves or their substitutes had – during the whole period of the formation of the newly born for responsible existence and for their subsequent responsible existence – to guide them and give corresponding indications on the basis of the said Oblekioonerish and also on the basis of the cosmic laws, constantly explained by them, flowing from the actions of the results of other large cosmic concentrations in general on the process of being existence of beings on all planets. (more…)

Associations (in VRW)

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:36 pm

Have you ever tried to watch yourself mentally when your attention has not been set on some definite problem for concentration? I suppose most of you are familiar with this, although perhaps only a few have systematically watched it in themselves. You are no doubt aware of the way we think by chance association, when our thought strings disconnected scenes and memories together, when everything that falls within the field of our consciousness, or merely touches it lightly, calls up these chance associations in our thought. The string of thoughts seems to go on uninterruptedly, weaving together fragments of representations of former perceptions, taken from different recordings in our memories. And these recordings turn and unwind while our thinking apparatus deftly weaves its threads of thought continuously from this material. The records of our feelings revolve in the same way-pleasant and unpleasant, joy and sorrow, laughter and irritation, pleasure and pain, sympathy and antipathy. You hear yourself praised and you are pleased; someone reproves you and your mood is spoiled. Something new captures your interest and instantly makes you forget what interested you just as much the moment before. Gradually your interest attaches you to the new thing to such an extent that you sink into it from head to foot; suddenly you do not possess it any more, you have disappeared, you are bound to and dissolved in this thing; in fact it possesses you, it has captivated you, and this infatuation, this capacity for being captivated is, under many different guises, a property of each one of us. This binds us and prevents our being free. By the same token it takes away our strength and our time, leaving us no possibility of being objective and free -two essential qualities for anyone who decides to follow the way of self-knowledge. [VRW p. 45] (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:35 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

This kind of people among us who have been turned into, so to say, “moths” destroying the good prepared and left for us by our ancestors and by time, have not the slightest notion and have probably never even heard of the screamingly obvious fact that, during the preparatory age, there is acquired in the brain functioning of every creature, and of man also, a particular and definite property, the automatic actualization and manifestation of which the ancient Korkolans called the “law of association,” and that the process of the mentation of every creature, especially man, flows exclusively in accordance with this law. [BTG I] (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:33 pm


“‘This custom is at present so widespread there, and the destruction of the existence of beings of various forms for this maleficent purpose has reached such dimensions, that there is already a surplus of the “Sacred Askokin” required from the planet Earth for its former parts, that is to say, a surplus of those vibrations which arise during the sacred process of “Rascooarno” of beings of every exterior form arising and existing on that planet from which the said sacred cosmic arising is required. [BTG XIX] (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:30 pm

SEE: ANGELS AND ARCHANGELS [Beelzebub’s Tales to his Grandson (1950)]

‘As I have already told you,’ said Gurdjieff, ‘there are very many kinds of suffering. This also is a stick with two ends. One kind of suffering leads to the angel, the other to the devil. [NOTT1] (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:28 pm

He said that ‘Amen’ means ‘God help us’. It is far older than the Jews. Everything is in this word, all the scale, from merde to God. In the Buddhist religion there is a similar word — OM. If we open our mouth as though to say AR and pronounce Amen or OM (Aum), slowly closing to ‘m’ or ‘n’ the whole scale of sound is there. [NOTT2 p. 84]



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Proceeding from this and acting in accordance to the wise saying of ancient times affirming that “in order to be in reality a just and good altruist it is inevitably required first of all to be an out and out egoist,” and also profiting by the good sense given us by Great Nature, each one of us must set for his chief aim to become in the process of our collective life a master. [BTG XLVIII] (more…)

Alchemy (in ISM)

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This chemistry or alchemy regards matter first of all from the point of view of its functions which determine its place in the universe and its relations to other matters and then from the point of view of its relation to man and to man’s functions. [ISM p. 176] (more…)

Alchemy (in BTG)

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“Then, my boy, this subsequent essence-friend of mine, Gornahoor Harharkh, by means of switching on and off the influx of the three active parts of Okidanokh and changing their force-of-striving, also changed the density of the elements of the said metal and thereby transformed the red copper into all the other also definite intraplanetary metals of lower or higher degree of vivifyingness.

“And here, for the elucidation of the strangeness of the psyche of the three-brained beings who have taken your fancy, it is very important and interesting to note that while Gornahoor Harharkh was, with the aid of his new invention, artificially and deliberately producing the evolution and involution of the density and vivifyingness of the elements of red copper, I noticed very clearly that this metal was transformed once upon the said plate into just that same definite metal about which the sorry-savants of your planet have been wiseacring during nearly the whole of their arising and existing, in the hope of transforming other metals into this metal, and thus constantly leading astray their already sufficiently erring brethren. [BTG XVIII, p. 174] (more…)

Alarm Clocks

Classé dans: — admin @ 5:22 pm

“There is also the possibility of being awakened by mechanical means. A man may be awakened by an alarm clock. But the trouble is that a man gets accustomed to the alarm clock far too quickly, he ceases to hear it. Many alarm clocks are necessary and always new ones. Otherwise a man must surround himself with alarm clocks which will prevent him sleeping. But here again there are certain difficulties. Alarm clocks must be wound up; in order to wind them up one must remember about them; in order to remember one must wake up often. But what is still worse, a man gets used to all alarm clocks and after a certain time he only sleeps the better for them. Therefore alarm clocks must be constantly changed, new ones must be continually invented. In the course of time this may help a man to awaken. But there is very little chance of a man doing all the work of winding up, inventing, and changing clocks all by himself, without outside help. It is much more likely that he will begin this work and that it will afterwards pass into sleep, and in sleep he will dream of inventing alarm clocks, of winding them up and changing them, and simply sleep all the sounder for it. (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:20 pm

SEE: Glossary Gurdjieff

[…] the substances which had to enter into the common presences of beings for the coating and feeding of their second being-bodies Kesdjan, namely, that totality of cosmic substances which your favorites call air, might at the same time serve as just such a help coming from outside for the evolution of the substances of the first being-food. [BTG XXXIX, p. 788]


Aim (ISM)

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SEE: In Search of the Miracolous (ISM)

G. often returned afterwards to this example of “prison” and “escape from prison” in his talks. Sometimes he began with it, and then his favorite statement was that, if a man in prison was at any time to have a chance of escape, then he must first of all realize that he is in prison. So long as he fails to realize this, so long as he thinks he is free, he has no chance whatever. No one can help or liberate him by force, against his will, in opposition to his wishes. If liberation is possible, it is possible only as a result of great labor and great efforts, and, above all, of conscious efforts, towards a definite aim. [ISM p. 30]

Aim (in Beelzebub’s Tales)

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“The first kind or first ‘principle’ of being-existence which is called ‘Foolasnitamnian’ is proper to the existence of all three-brained beings arising on any planet of our Great Universe, and the fundamental aim and sense of the existence of these beings is that there must proceed through them the transmutation of cosmic substances necessary for what is called the ‘common-cosmic Trogoautoegocratic-process.’ [BTG XVI, p. 130] (more…)

Aim (in Views from the Real World - VRW)

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VIDE: AIM (in ISM); AIM (in MRM); AIM (in Life is real…)

I have already said that there are people who hunger and thirst for truth. If they examine the problems of life and are sincere with themselves, they soon become convinced that it is not possible to live as they have lived and to be what they have been until now; that a way out of this situation is essential and that a man can develop his hidden capacities and powers only by cleaning his machine of the dirt that has clogged it in the course of his life. But in order to undertake this cleaning in a rational way, he has to see what needs to be cleaned, where and how; but to see this for himself is almost impossible. In order to see anything of this one has to look from the outside; and for this mutual help is necessary. [VRW p. 50] (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:11 pm


“A very important role in the human machine is played by a certain kind of accumulator. There are two small accumulators near each center filled with the particular substance necessary for the work of the given center.

“In addition, there is in the organism a large accumulator which feeds the small ones. The small accumulators are connected together, and further, each of them is connected with the center next to which it stands, as well as with the large accumulator.” (more…)


Classé dans: — admin @ 5:09 pm


“It often happens that while existing together, destiny, for any separate individual in the process of his personal existence, turns out for him personally to be absolutely unjust, but for all the others existing together with him, there are obtained from this in the objective sense, an abundance of just fruits. And that is why I wish to tell you about this in as much detail as possible, and will even try to repeat this account of his to you as verbatim as possible without changing anything. [(more…)



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Il y a bien, bien longtemps de cela, lorsque Belzébuth existait encore chez lui, sur la planète Karataz, il avait été pris, en raison des ressources extraordinaires de son intelligence, pour servir sur le “Soleil Absolu", principal lieu de résidence de Notre Souverain Seigneur Eternel, et, avec quelques-uns de ses semblables, il avait pris rang parmi les familiers de Son Eternité. [RBPF II] (more…)


Cahiers de l’Hermétisme : L’ASTROLOGIE

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Selon l’avant-propos de André Barbault et Antoine Faivre:

Dans l’ordre de l’intérêt porté par les hommes aux doctrines traditionnelles, l’Astrologie occupe la première place, au point d’être devenue un phénomène de société dans la vie d’aujourd’hui. Fabuleuse est son histoire, qui la pose comme monument du savoir humain, transmis de civilisation en civilisation jusqu’à notre culture occidentale, son crépuscule au XVIIe siècle paraissant de plus en plus n ‘avoir été que l’avatar d’un refoulement. VOIR ICI

Corbin : Histoire de la philosophie islamique

Classé dans: — admin @ 10:37 am

Quelques lignes sont nécessaires pour expliquer l’intitulation et la structure de la présente étude, pour laquelle nous n’avions guère de devanciers qui nous aient frayé la voie.

1. Tout d’abord nous parlons de « philosophie islamique » et non pas, comme l’usage en prévalut longtemps depuis le Moyen Age, de « philosophie arabe ». Le prophète de l’Islam était, certes, un Arabe d’Arabie; l’arabe littéral est la langue de la Révélation qorânique, la langue liturgique de la Prière, la langue et l’outil conceptuel qui furent utilisés par des Arabes comme par des non-Arabes, pour édifier l’une des littératures les plus abondantes du monde, celle où s’exprime la culture islamique. Cependant, le sens des désignations ethniques évolue avec les siècles. De nos jours le terme « arabe » réfère, dans l’usage courant comme dans l’usage officiel, à un concept ethnique, national et politique précis, avec lequel ne coïncident ni le concept religieux « Islam » ni les limites de son univers. Les peuples arabes ou arabisés ne sont même qu’une fraction minoritaire dans la totalité du monde islamique. L’oecuménicité du concept religieux « Islam » ne peut être ni transférée ni restreinte aux limites d’un concept ethnique ou national, profane. C’est une évidence qui va de soi pour quiconque a vécu en pays d’Islam non arabe.


Classé dans: — admin @ 10:05 am

Le Dieu qui crée le monde et le gouverne est naturellement connu par la contemplation de l’ordre du monde. Mais le Dieu transcendant au monde, et qui non seulement n’a pas créé le monde puisque le monde est matière, mais est totalement éloigné du monde et en quelque sorte opposé au monde, ce Dieu-là peut-il encore être connu, et, s’il l’est, de quelle manière? Voilà le problème que pose cet ouvrage, par lequel s’achève notre étude de la philosophie religieuse sous l’Empire. Il est divisé en deux parties.



La vieillesse

Classé dans: — admin @ 4:14 pm

Extrait de Cicéron, “La vieillesse”

SCIPION. Je m’étonne souvent avec Caius Lélius qui m’accompagne, de ta sagesse en tout exceptionnelle et parfaite, et surtout de ceci : je n’ai jamais pensé que la vieillesse te soit pénible ; elle est si insupportable à la plupart des gens âgés qu’ils en parlent comme d’une charge plus lourde que l’Etna !

CATON. Vous paraissez, Scipion et Lélius, vous étonner d’une affaire qui n’a rien de compliqué : les gens qui n’ont en eux-mêmes aucune ressource pour vivre bien et avec bonheur [ad bene beateque vivendum] trouvent tout âge pénible ; mais ceux qui recherchent tous les biens en eux-mêmes ne peuvent considérer comme mauvais ce que la nécessité naturelle [naturae necessitas] leur apporte. Dans ce domaine on trouve avant tout la vieillesse, que tout le monde souhaite atteindre mais qu’on rejette quand on y est : beau résultat de l’inconséquence et de l’extravagance de notre faiblesse d’esprit ! Les gens disent qu’elle s’insinue plus vite qu’ils ne l’auraient estimé : mais qui les a forcés à se tromper dans leur estimation ? Comment en effet la vieillesse a-t-elle sournoisement remplacé la jeunesse, plus vite que la jeunesse n’avait remplacé l’enfance ? Et en quoi la vieillesse leur serait-elle moins pénible s’ils vivaient huit cents ans plutôt que quatre-vingts ? Si lentement que se soit écoulé le temps passé, aucune consolation ne pourrait adoucir une vieillesse privée de raison [stultam senectutem].

5. Si donc vous admirez souvent ma sagesse [sapientiam] (que je souhaite digne de votre opinion et de mon surnom !), voici en quoi nous sommes sages : nous suivons comme un dieu la direction indiquée par l’excellente nature et nous lui obéissons. De sa part, il n’est pas logique, alors que toutes les périodes de l’âge ont été si bien définies, que son dernier acte ait été négligé, comme par un poète sans art. Il a pourtant bien fallu qu’il y ait un dernier stade, flétri et périssable, comme pour les baies des arbres et les fruits de la terre, une fois leur maturité révolue, et le sage doit le supporter paisiblement. Refuser la nature, qu’est-ce d’autre que le combat des Géants contre les dieux ?


La folie est la source de la sagesse

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Extrait de Giorgio Colli — La Naissance de la philosophie

Les origines de la philosophie grecque, et donc de la pensée occidentale tout entière, sont mystérieuses. Selon la tradition érudite, la philosophie naît avec Thalès et Anaximandre: au dix-huitième siècle, on a recherché ses origines les plus lointaines dans des contacts légendaires avec les cultures orientales, avec la pensée égyptienne et la pensée indienne. Rien n’a pu être attesté dans cette direction, et l’on s’est contenté d’établir des analogies et des parallèles. En réalité, l’époque qui correspond aux origines de la philosophie grecque est bien plus proche de nous. Platon appelle «philosophie», amour de la sagesse, sa propre recherche, sa propre activité éducative, liée à une expression écrite, à la forme littéraire du dialogue. Et Platon se tourne avec vénération vers le passé, vers ce monde où les «sages» avaient véritablement vécu. D’autre part, la philosophie postérieure, notre philosophie, n’est autre qu’une continuation, qu’un développement de la forme littéraire introduite par Platon; et pourtant cette dernière surgit comme un phénomène de décadence, puisque «l’amour de la sagesse» est en deçà de la «sagesse». En effet l’amour de la sagesse ne signifiait pas pour Platon une aspiration à quelque chose qui n’avait jamais été atteint, mais plutôt une tendance à récupérer ce qui déjà avait été réalisé et vécu. (more…)

Le miracle selon Wittgenstein

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« L’éthique, si elle existe, est surnaturelle », affirme Wittgenstein dans sa Conférence sur l’Éthique, prononcée à Cambridge en 1930. Dans tout ce qui advient au monde et qui peut être décrit par des propositions, nous ne trouvons nulle trace du sens de la vie. Toutefois, il ne fait pas de doute que la recherche d’un tel sens constitue une expérience des plus intense. À tel point que, concernant l’éthique, on pourrait même parler d’expérience surnaturelle. Mais peut-on concevoir une expérience surnaturelle ? N’équivaut-elle pas littéralement à un miracle ? Disons que, dans une certaine mesure, elle lui est équivalente en effet : oui, l’éthique est intimement liée au miracle. Mais à condition, ajoute Wittgenstein, que l’on comprenne ce dernier de façon appropriée, en le soustrayant à l’horizon positiviste dans lequel la tradition religieuse elle-même l’inscrit la plupart du temps. (more…)


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Extrait de David Gritz, “Levinas face au beau

C’est par le concept de “ressemblance” que Levinas va atteindre la portée ontologique de l’image, portée irréductible donc à l’il y a. Le philosophe réhabilite-t-il l’idée d’image comme copie? Ne définit-on pas en effet une copie par sa ressemblance avec un modèle? Mais une copie qui ressemble à son modèle garde toujours la trace de sa provenance: l’être originel de la chose s’y reflète, fût-ce sur un mode diminué ou dégradé. Ainsi pensée la ressemblance maintient l’initiative de l’artiste: elle en fait le créateur d’une autre chose, d’une chose de réalité ontologique moindre. Or, pour Levinas, il faut au contraire “poser la ressemblance, non pas comme le résultat d’une comparaison entre l’image et l’original, mais comme le mouvement même qui engendre l’image15″. Le mouvement traditionnel censé produire de la ressemblance est donc inversé. L’initiative d’un artiste qui créerait autre chose, à côté des choses qui toujours ont eu une présence, n’est pas retenue ici. Entre la chose et son image, la séparation reste forte et il faut alors penser que c’est du côté de la chose que naît l’image. Levinas écrit: “La réalité ne serait pas seulement ce qu’elle est… mais son double, son ombre, son image". L’être est donc à la fois ce qu’il est et ce qu’il n’est pas. En d’autres termes la ressemblance précède l’image ! Si dès lors celle-ci entraîne une faillite de la responsabilité humaine, comme Levinas le soutient, il ne semble pas que ce soit l’artiste lui-même, par qui l’image vient vers nous, qui en soit responsable… (more…)


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L’Univers tout entier – disaient les philosophes grecs – est rempli d’âmes et de démons, c’est-à-dire d’esprits. Car pour qu’il y ait spiritualité, il doit y avoir des esprits, de même que, selon Nietzsche, «pour qu’il y ait divinité, il doit y avoir des dieux». Et pour les Grecs il y avait dans cette divinité, plénitude spirituelle de l’Univers, trois ordres ou trois mondes de nature distincte: celui des dieux, celui des hommes et celui des démons. La différence entre ces mondes était une distance ou une distinction simplement élémentaire: le monde élémentaire de l’homme c’est la terre, celui des dieux le ciel éthéré, celui des démons l’air. Pour nous en tenir à ce que l’on appellera l’interprétation classique du Démon, nous le rencontrons de prime abord en l’air ou dans les airs, peuplant l’atmosphère d’invisibles présences spirituelles. La nature aérienne ou irritée du ou des démons avait pour les Grecs le sens d’une intercession ou d’une médiation divine: les démons étaient des créatures aériennes destinées à transmettre et à transporter des messages entre les hommes et les dieux. Aussi étaient-ils indifféremment bons ou mauvais suivant, disons, le succès de leurs médiations ou transmissions, de leurs négociations célestes, car c’étaient en quelque sorte des agents de change ou d’échange spirituel des hommes avec le ciel. Et par là-même soumis, tel que le rapporte saint Augustin suivant le témoignage d’Apulée, aux mêmes passions humaines; encore que certains, ajoute-t-il, aient cru que c’étaient les hommes qui, de leurs passions et de leurs vices, contaminaient les démons. (Dans le livre apocryphe d’Enoch, on apprend que le péché des anges, celui qui en fit des démons, fut de tomber amoureux des femmes.)

Peuple vs multitude: Hobbes et Spinoza

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Extrait de Paolo Virno, “Grammaire de la multitude

Je considère que le concept de multitude, par opposition à celui, plus familier, de «peuple», est un outil décisif pour toute réflexion sur la sphère publique contemporaine. Il faut avoir à l’esprit que l’alternative entre «peuple» et «multitude» a été au centre des controverses du XVIIe siècle, au plan pratique (fondation des Etats centraux modernes, guerres de religion, etc.) et au plan théorico-philosophique. Ces deux concepts opposés l’un à l’autre, forgés au feu de contrastes très marqués, ont joué un rôle de première importance dans la définition des catégories politico-sociales de la modernité. Ce fut la notion de «peuple» qui l’emporta. «Multitude» est le terme perdant, le concept qui a eu le dessous. Pour décrire les formes de la vie en société et l’esprit public des grands Etats qui venaient de se constituer, on ne parla plus de multitude, mais de peuple. Reste à se demander si aujourd’hui, à la fin d’un cycle long, cette ancienne dispute n’est pas en train de se réouvrir; si aujourd’hui, alors que la théorie politique de la modernité subit une crise radicale, la notion autrefois déboutée ne témoigne pas d’une extraordinaire vitalité, prenant ainsi une revanche retentis.

Hobbes et Spinoza sont les pères putatifs des deux polarités, peuple et multitude. Pour Spinoza la multitudo désigne une pluralité qui persiste comme telle sur la scène publique, dans l’action collective, dans la prise en charge des affaires communes, sans converger vers un Un, sans s’évaporer sur un mode centripète. Multitude est la forme d’existence sociale et politique du Nombre1 en tant que Nombre: forme permanente, non épisodique ou interstitielle. Pour Spinoza, la multitudo est la clef de voûte des libertés civiles (cf. Spinoza 1677).

Hobbes déteste la multitude – j’utilise à dessein un terme passionnel, bien peu scientifique – il se déchaîne contre elle. Dans l’existence sociale et politique du Nombre en tant que Nombre, dans la pluralité qui ne converge pas vers une unité synthétique, il voit le pire danger pour l’«empire suprême», c’est-à-dire pour ce monopole de la décision politique qu’est l’Etat. La meilleure façon de comprendre la portée d’un concept – celui de multitude dans le cas qui nous occupe – est de l’examiner avec les yeux de celui qui l’a combattu avec ténacité. C’est précisément celui qui veut l’éliminer de l’univers théorique et pratique qui en saisit toutes les implications et les nuances.

Relier la pensée de Leopardi à l’ancienne gnose

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Extrait de Massimo Cacciari, “Platonisme et Gnose - Fragment sur Simone Weil”

Une trame dense de références semble relier la pensée de Leopardi à l’ancienne gnose, comme «inaugurant» un problème destiné à prendre une très grande importance dans la culture contemporaine. (more…)


De la magie

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Extrait de Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, “De la dignité de l’homme

Nous avons également proposé des théorèmes magiques, où nous avons montré que la magie est double: la première relève entièrement de l’action et de l’autorité des démons - ce qui est, par ma foi, exécrable et monstrueux; la seconde, à y regarder de près, n’est que le parfait accomplissement de la philosophie naturelle. Quand ils les mentionnent toutes deux, les Grecs appellent celle-là goeteian (goétie), ne l’estimant pas digne du nom de magie; ils désignent celle-ci par le terme propre et particulier de mageian (magie), comme la parfaite et suprême sapience. De fait, selon Porphyre, «mage» signifie dans la langue des Perses ce qui est chez nous un interprète et un adorateur du divin. Entre ces deux pratiques, Pères, la disparité et la différence sont bel et bien considérables, ou pour mieux dire immenses. (more…)

Dialogue entre l’adolescent et l’homme

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Extrait de Carlo Michelstaedter, “Dialogue de la santé et autres textes

L’adolescent. Moi je sens en moi deux hommes, l’un qui veut le plaisir, l’autre le bien. – Comme je satisfais tantôt l’un tantôt l’autre, ma vie est diverse.

L’homme. Mais le bien est-il plaisant ou non?

L’adolescent. Oui, autrement ce ne serait pas le bien.

L’homme. Et le plaisir, qu’est-ce que c’est?

L’adolescent. C’est le fait de posséder des choses plaisantes.

L’homme. Quand tu as satisfait le «moi» qui veut le plaisir, il ne te manque plus rien alors?

L’adolescent. Si, car tout ne vient pas en une seule fois.

L’homme. Alors le «moi» qui veut le plaisir ne veut pas toujours la même chose, mais tantôt l’une, tantôt l’autre?

L’adolescent. Oui.

L’homme. Pourquoi alors l’appelons-nous le moi et non les «mois», s’il est à chaque fois différent. Veux-tu que nous en parlions ainsi? (more…)

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